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ISSN : 1229-9618(Print)
ISSN : 2671-7506(Online)
Chinese Studies Vol.80 pp.279-303

Reanalysis of Subject and Topic in Korean and Chinese

Su Ling-Ling
中山大學 國際翻譯學院 東亞研究中心 博士後研究員


This paper argues that in order to distinguish subject and topic of S-P predicate sentence in Korea and Chinese, we should not only pay attention to the word order, meaning or structure of sentences, but also combine the interaction and constraints among various factors such as word order, meaning, structure and predicate ‘distance iconicity’ principle. The types of sentences in which subject and topic are most debated are state adjectives, situation-all adjectives, and psychological adjectives. The ‘NP1’ component in the state adjectives and psychological adjectives is not only regarded as the subject in the sentence, but also has the topic feature [+TOP], while ‘NP2’ cannot be regarded as the subject, but should be regarded as the non-subject. In all adjectives sentences, ‘NP1’ acts as the subject component and the topic feature [+TOP]. The analysis of ‘NP2’ shows that the sentence pattern is a single sentence structure. However, ‘NP1’ in the situation adjectives sentence only shows the locative component with the topic feature [+TOP], and ‘NP2’ is the only subject component in the sentence. Finally, the conclusion of this paper is that although the topic is not an independent syntactic component, it has substantial grammatical properties in the syntactic aspect, which is regarded as the grammatical function with the topic feature [+TOP], the so-called S-P predicate sentence should not be regarded as a complex sentence, but as a single sentence.


본고에서는 한국어와 중국어 이중주어문에서 문장의 어순, 의미, 통사 그리고 서술 어의 ‘거리도상성(距離象似性)’ 등 몇 가지 방면을 모두 고려해야 주어와 화제를 잘 파악할 수 있다고 보았다. 주어와 화제에 관한 논쟁이 많이 일어나는 문장 유형 중, 성상형용사 구문, 소유-소재형용사 구문, 심리형용사 구문을 중심으로 검토하였는데, 화제는 독립된 통사 성분이 아니지만 통사 층위에서 실제적인 문법 특징을 가지고 있으며 어떤 성분이 화제 특징 [+TOP]을 가지게 하는 기능 용법인 것이다. 소위 한 국어의 이중주어문이라 하는 구문을 복문이 아니라 단문으로 분석해 내었다.