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ISSN : 1229-9618(Print)
ISSN : 2671-7506(Online)
Chinese Studies Vol.80 pp.195-211

A Study on the Pragmatic Functional Differences between ‘Jiu’ and ‘Cai’ in the Negative Sentences of Modern Chinese

Lee Na-Hyun
한국외국어대학교 중국어통번역학과 강사


This paper studied the differences between ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’ in the negative sentences from the view point of pragmatics. The adverbs ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’ are very often used by Chinese speakers, and in negative sentences, these two adverbs represent emphasis. ‘Jiu’ tends to be used with ‘le’ and ‘cai’ with ‘ne’. Both adverbs show the speaker’s emphasis but the pragmatic functional differences in negative sentences. This paper analyzed several corpus data and compared the difference in pragmatics between ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’. Through the analysis, this paper confirmed their ability to contradict each other even though they show the speaker’s subjectivity. 'Jiu' indicates that either the start or end time of an event is earlier than the speaker expected. For this reason, ‘jiu’ has the function of ‘news reporting’ with ‘le’. This can also be applied to the ‘emphasis’ usage. ‘Jiu’ unilaterally conveys the speaker’s thoughts to the listener. On the other hand, ‘cai’ is not worthy for ‘news reporting’ because either the start or end time of an event has passed earlier than the speaker expected. In general, ‘cai’ combines with ‘ne’ to gain sympathy from the listener. As such, when a Chinese speaker wants to convey his position, he tends to choose either ‘jiu’ or ‘cai’ according to his purpose of utterance.


본고는 부정문에 출현해서 소위 ‘강조’의 의미를 갖는 어기부사 ‘就’와 ‘才’의 화용 기능 차이를 분석했다. 화자가 ‘就’를 사용하는 것은 청자에게 자신의 입장을 일방적 으로 통보하고, 청자의 개입을 차단하기 위해서이다. 반대로 ‘才’는 담화를 시작하며 청자의 동의와 공감을 기대하는 확신 표지 ‘呢’와 결합해 화자의 발화에 대해 청자가 동의하고 공감해 주기를 바란다. 즉, 부정문에서 사용된 ‘就’는 화자의 입장만을 일방 적으로 전달하는 폐쇄적인 표지라면 ‘才’는 청자의 개입을 허용하는 열린 표지라고 할 수 있겠다.