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ISSN : 1229-9618(Print)
ISSN : 2671-7506(Online)
Chinese Studies Vol.67 pp.193-206

A Study on the Transitions of Polite Expressions in Chinese Language : Focusing on Appellation Words

Oh Hyun-Ju
울산대학교 중국어중국학과


This study examined the patterns of appellation words from the perspective of politeness. As the meaning and expression of politeness changes with the times, appellation words changed over time as well. Therefore, this study examined the patterns of transition of appellation words from a temporal perspective. To this end, this study investigated the patterns of use of appellation words over time from 1930s to present, and analyzed the process and characteristics of the change. Appellation words include appellation used commonly in society, appellation for social relatives, appellation for occupation and title, and appellation for ‘Lao (“old”) + surname.’ While appellation words that do not fit with the trend of the times are disappearing, appellation words in tune with the times are newly appearing, and some appellation words change its meaning and contents according to the times.
First, Comrade and Mrs (“tongzhi” and “taitai,” respectively in Chinese), which were used socially, are no longer in use and Ms (“nushi” in Chinese) newly appeared.
Second, appellation words for occupation and title such as Laozong (“boss”), Zongdu (“viceroy”), and Zhanggui (“shopkeeper”) disappeared, while Mouzong, Jingli (“manager”), and Laoban newly appeared.
Third, the appellation words for social relatives apply to people who have no blood relationship. As times change, cultural levels rise, and human relationships become complicated, the use of appellation words decreases accordingly.
Fourth, the appellation word ‘Lao (“old”) + surname’ is being used actively in all times. The use of polite and proper appellation words is very important for smooth communication and good human relationships. Attention should be paid to the ways and words for appellation that change from time to time according to socio-cultural atmosphere.

현대중국어 공손표현의 변천 양상 연구 ― 호칭어를 중심으로

* 울산대학교 중국어중국학과 강사


본 연구는 공손 관점에서 호칭어의 사용 양상을 고찰하였다. 공손의 의미와 표현은 시대에 따라 변화한다. 호칭어 역시 시대와 함께 변화한다. 이에 본 연구는 통시적인 관점에서 호칭어의 변천 양상을 살펴보았다. 이를 위해 1930년대부터 현재까지 시대별로 호칭어의 사용 양상을 조사하고, 변화 과정과 그 특징을 분석하였다. 호칭어는 사회적 통용 호칭, 사회적 친족 호칭, 직업·직함 호칭, ‘老+성’ 호칭 등이 있다. 시대와 맞지 않는 호칭어는 사라지고, 새로운 시대에 맞는 호칭이 생겨나기도 하고, 또 어떤 호칭은 시대에 따라 그것이 내포하는 의미나 내용이 달라지기도 한다.